The Life Science

The word biology means, "the science of life", from the Greek bios, life, and logos, word or knowledge. Therefore, Biology is the science of Living Things. That is why Biology is sometimes known as Life Science.

The science has been divided into many subdisciplines, such as botany, bacteriology, anatomy, zoology, histology, mycology, embryology, parasitology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, immunology, microbiology, physiology, cell biology, cytology, ecology, and virology. Other branches of science include or are comprised in part of biology studies, including paleontology, taxonomy, evolution, phycology, helimentology, protozoology, entomology, biochemistry, biophysics, biomathematics, bio engineering, bio climatology and anthropology.


Characteristics of life 

Not all scientists agree on the definition of just what makes up life. Various characteristics describe most living things. However, with most of the characteristics listed below we can think of one or more examples that would seem to break the rule, with something nonliving being classified as living or something living classified as nonliving. Therefore we are careful not to be too dogmatic in our attempt to explain which things are living or nonliving.
  • Living things are composed of matter structured in an orderly way where simple molecules are ordered together into much larger macromolecules. An easy way to remember this is GRIMNERD C All organisms; - Grow, Respire, Interact, Move, Need Nutrients, Excrete (Waste), Reproduce,Death, Cells (Made of) 
  • Living things are sensitive, meaning they are able to respond to stimuli. 
  • Living things are able to grow, develop, and reproduce.
  • Living things are able to adapt over time by the process of natural selection. 
  • All known living things use the hereditary molecule, DNA
  • Internal functions are coordinated and regulated so that the internal environment of a living thing is relatively constant, referred to as homeostasis10. 
Living things are organized in the microscopic level from atoms up to cells11. Atoms are arranged into molecules, then into macromolecules12, which make up organelles13, which work together to form cells. Beyond this, cells are organized in higher levels to form entire multicellular organisms. Cells together form tissues14, which make up organs, which are part of organ systems, which work together to form an entire organism. Of course, beyond this, organisms form populations which make up parts of an ecosystem. All of the Earth's ecosystems together form the diverse environment that is the earth.

Example:
- sub atoms, atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, eco systems

Nature of science

life of science


Science is a methodology for learning about the world. It involves the application of knowledge.

The scientific method deals with systematic investigation, reproducible results, the formation and testing of hypotheses, and reasoning.

Reasoning can be broken down into two categories, induction (specific data is used to develop a generalized observation or conclusion) and deduction (general information leads to specific conclusion). Most reasoning in science is done through induction.

Science as we now know it arose as a discipline in the 17th century.

Scientific method

The scientific method is not a step by step, linear process. It is an intuitive process, a methodology for learning about the world through the application of knowledge. Scientists must be able to have an "imaginative preconception" of what the truth is. Scientists will often observe and then hypothesize the reason why a phenomenon occurred. They use all of their knowledge and a bit of imagination, all in an attempt to uncover something that might be true. A typical scientific investigation might go like so:

You observe that a room appears dark, and you ponder why the room is dark. In an attempt to find explanations to this curiosity, your mind unravels several different hypotheses. One hypothesis might state that the lights are turned off. Another hunch might be that the room's lightbulb has burnt out. Worst yet, you could be going blind. To discover the truth, you experiment. You feel your way around the room and find a light switch and turn it on. No light.

You repeat the experiment, flicking the switch back and forth. Still nothing. That means your initial hypothesis, the room is dark because the lights are off, has been rejected. You devise more experiments to test your hypotheses, utilizing a flashlight to prove that you are indeed not blind. In order to accept your last remaining hypothesis as the truth, you could predict that changing the light bulb will fix the problem. If all your predictions succeed, the original hypothesis is valid and is accepted. In some cases, however, your predictions will not occur, in which you'll have to start over. Perhaps the power is off.

Scientists first make observations that raise a particular question. In order to explain the observed phenomenon, they develop a number of possible explanations, or hypotheses. This is the inductive part of science, observing and constructing plausible arguments for why an event occurred. Experiments are then used to eliminate one of more of the possible hypotheses until one hypothesis remains. Using deduction, scientists use the principles of their hypothesis to make predictions, and then test to make sure that their predictions are confirmed. After many trials (repeatability) and all predictions have been confirmed, the hypothesis then may become a theory.

(Meyda Azzahra)